图片 1

卡塔尔多哈市鸿栢科技(science and technology卡塔尔(قطر‎全新智哥伺服电动缸,智哥牌中空电动缸伺服电动缸

付加物简单介绍:

图片 1

  该付加物接纳精密行星滚柱丝杆传动工夫,内置无刷伺服电机,适用于具备低、中、高档性能供给的移位调节种类。该付加物将松开无刷伺性格很顽强在艰难险阻或巨大压力面前不屈电机与滚柱丝杆传动构造融为生机勃勃体,伺服电机转子的旋转运动一向通过滚柱丝杠机构转变为推杆的直线运动。该产物可遵照客商的须要举行脾气化定战胜务。

点击图片查看原图品牌:智哥推力:7吨重量:19kg行程:0-200mm单价:160000.00元/台起订:1
台供货总数:999 台发货期限:自买家付款之日起 30 天内发货所在地:安徽深圳市保质期至:长时间有效最终更新:2019-09-18
16:56浏览次数:19商家基本资料消息柏林(Berlin卡塔尔国市鸿栢科学和技术实业有限集团[德才两全档案]已缴纳
0.00 元保险金联系人蒙洋(先生卡塔尔顾客首席实施官会员 [当下离线] [加为商友]
[出殡信件]话机手提式有线电话机地区江西-费城市地点柏林(Berlin卡塔尔市罗湖区塘头大道58号详尽表明

  The product uses precision planetary roller screw drive technology,
built-in brushless servo motor,applicable to a low,medium and
high-level performance motion control system. The product will be built
integrated brushless servo motor and ball screw drive structure, servo
motor rotor rotary motion into linear motion directly by putting a ball
screw mechanism. The product can be customized according to customer
demand for personalized service.

付加物简单介绍:

出品特色:

该付加物选择精密行星滚柱丝杆传动本事,内置无刷伺服电机,适用于具有低、中、高等品质供给的运动调节连串。该付加物将置于无刷伺服电机与滚柱丝杆传动布局融为风姿浪漫体,伺服电机转子的团团转运动平素通过滚柱丝杠机构转变为推杆的直线运动。该付加物可借助客商的须要开展本性化定制伏务。


1、品质特出,寿命长,维护费用低; 2、负载大,刚性好;

付加物性状:

笔记

3、发热量小,速度调整精度高; 4、布局紧密,外形姣好,应用范围广;

1、品质卓绝,寿命长,维护花费低; 2、负载大,刚性好;

5、安装灵活,易拆卸维修;

3、发热量小,速度调节精度高; 4、布局紧密,外形赏心悦目,应用范围广;

长机总体性能参数 OVERALL TECHNICAL DATA

5、安装灵活,易拆卸维修;1、可在恶劣条件下办事,可防水、防爆、防盐雾等等。2、可按顾客必要订做差别效劳、区别速度、差异路程的电动缸。3、采取高精度
丝杠和老牌电机,定位精度高,响应快,路程和过程可调。4、本付加物低噪声音、节约财富环境爱抚、工作寿命长。5、本产物体积小、重量轻
、安装调节和测量试验操作方便。6、本付加物备有过流、过路程等三种爱慕措施,确认保证器械安全运会行。

 

更多本公司其余成品

from 

基本型号

Model

行程

Range

导程

Extent

最大载荷

Load

重量

Weight

HB IES-130

0-200mm

3mm/5mm/7.5mm

70KN

19KG

HB IES-100

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

16KN

11KG

HB IES-80

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

9KN

6.5KG

手臂的思考节制:   20磅的最卖力和30英寸磅的扭矩

 

每一个手部组件总共具有15个自由度,何况由前臂,五个DOF腕部以至具备地点,速度和力传感器的十一个DOF手组成。

前臂的底部直径为4英寸,长度大概8英寸,容纳全部十二台电机,

手部配备了肆16个传感器(不包蕴触觉感测)。//
各种难题都配有嵌入式相对地方传感器,// 种种电机都配有增量式编码器。//
每种导螺纹钢筋组件以致花招球关节连杆均被道具为应力传感器以提供力反馈。

过去的手工设计[4,5]接纳了应用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,这三种装置在EVA空间意况中应用时都会导致严重的损害和可信赖性难点。为了防止与肌腱有关的难题,手使用柔性轴将电力以前臂的马达传输到手指。使用迷你模块化导螺纹钢筋组件将柔性轴的转动运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是四个意气风发体而金城汤池的传动系。


英文

from 

Robonaut’s hands set it apart from any previous space manipulator
system. These hands can fit into all the same places currently designed
for an astronaut’s gloved hand. A key feature of the hand is its palm
degree of freedom that allows Robonaut to cup a tool and line up its
long axis with the roll degree of freedom of the forearm, thereby,
permitting tool use in tight spaces with minimum arm motion. Each hand
assembly shown in figure 3 has a total of 14 DOFs, and consists of a
forearm, a two DOF wrist, and a twelve DOF hand complete with position,
velocity, and force sensors. The forearm, which measures four inches in
diameter at its base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all
fourteen motors, the motor control and power electronics, and all of the
wiring for the hand. An exploded view of this assembly is given in
figure 4. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meet
or exceed that of a human hand in a pressurized glove. Page 2 Figure 4:
Forearm Assembly The requirements for interacting with planned space
station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting point for
the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power and dexterous grasps are
required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain tools require single
or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. A maximum force
of 20 lbs and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove and install EVA
orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [2]. The hand itself consists of two
sections (figure 5) : a dexterous work set used for manipulation, and a
grasping set which allows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while
manipulating or actuating a given object. This is an essential feature
for tool use [3]. The dexterous set consists of two 3 DOF fingers
(index and middle) and a 3 DOF opposable thumb. The grasping set
consists of two, single DOF fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm DOF.
All of the fingers are shock mounted into the palm. In order to match
the size of an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside
the hand, and mechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive
train. Past hand designs [4,5] have used tendon drives which utilize
complex pulley systems or sheathes, both of which pose serious wear and
reliability problems when used in the EVA space environment. To avoid
the problems associated with tendons, the hand uses flex shafts to
transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary
motion of the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand
using small modular leadscrew assemblies. The result is a compact yet
rugged drive train. Figure 5: Hand Anatomy Overall the hand is equipped
with forty-two sensors (not including tactile sensing). Each joint is
equipped with embedded absolute position sensors and each motor is
equipped with incremental encoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as
well as the wrist ball joint links are instrumented as load cells to
provide force feedback. In addition to providing standard impedance
control, hand force control algorithms take advantage of the
non-backdriveable finger drive train to minimize motor power
requirements once a desired grasp force is achieved. Hand primitives in
the form of pre-planned trajectories are available to minimize operator
workload when performing repeated tasks.


译文

from 

Robonaut的手把它与以前的高空垄断(monopoly卡塔尔(قطر‎器系统区分开来。那几个双手能够装入这段日子为宇宙航银行人员的戴手套而布署的具备同意气风发之处。手的叁个重大天性是它的掌心自由度,使得罗布onaut能够用一个工具和长轴与前臂的自由度进行排列,进而允许工具在窄小的半空中中以眇小的单臂运动应用。

图3中所示的各种手部组件总共具有17个自由度,况兼由前臂,四个DOF腕部以至具备地方,速度和力传感器的十三个DOF手组成。前臂的底层直径为4英寸,长度大约8英寸,容纳全部十八台电机,电机调节和电力电子道具,以至有开首持线路。图4付出了该器件的解释图。手段节距和偏航的风流洒脱道路程被设计为在加压手套中达到或领古人口。

图4:前臂装配与布置的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互作用的渴求为罗布onaut手的宏图提供了源点[1]。垄断(monopoly卡塔尔国EVA乘员组织工作具必要力量和灵活的抓握。某个工具需求双手或多手指动作,同一时候牢牢吸引。拆卸和装置EVA轨道可替换单元(ORU)必要20磅的最努力和30英寸磅的扭矩[2]。

手由两有的组成(图5):一个用来操作的利落职业组,以至三个抓握组件,它同意手在支配或运营给定物体时保持平静的抓握。那是工具使用的基本特征[3]。灵巧套装由两个3
DOF手指(食指和中指)和一个3
DOF可对折手指组成。抓握组由多少个单DOF手指(无名氏指和小指)和叁个手掌自由度组成。全体的手指头都被装置在掌心上。为了同盟宇宙航银行人士戴起头套的手的轻重,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。

千古的手工业设计[4,5]接收了应用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那二种装置在EVA空间情形中行使时都会导致惨烈的毁伤和可信性难点。为了防止与肌腱有关的标题,手使用柔性轴将电力在此以前臂的电机传输到手指。使用Mini模块化导螺纹钢筋组件将柔性轴的转动运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是二个大器晚成体而压实的传动系。

图5:手部解剖简单的说,手部配备了四十一个传感器(不包涵触觉感测)。每一个接头都配有嵌入式相对地点传感器,每种电机都配有增量式编码器。每一种导螺丝杆组件甚至花招球关节连杆均被器械为称重传感器以提供力反馈。除了提供专门的学问阻抗调节之外,风华正茂旦到达梦想的抓力,手力调节算法利用非反向驱动手指驱动系统来节省电机能源消耗渴求。预先规划的轨道方式的手原语可用以在执行重复任务时最大限度地缩短操作员的职业量。


Design of the NASA Robonaut Hand R1

C. S. Lovchik, H. A. Aldridge RoboticsTechnology Branch NASA Johnson
Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 Iovchik@jsc.nasa.gov,
haldridg@ems.jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534

Abstract

The design of a highly anthropomorphichuman scale robot hand for space
based operations is described. This fivefinger hand combined with its
integrated wrist and forearm has fourteenindependent degrees of freedom.
The device approximates very well thekinematics and required strength of
an astronaut’s hand when operating througha pressurized space suit
glove. The mechanisms used to meet these requirementsare explained in
detail along with the design philosophy behind them.Integration
experiences reveal the challenges associated with obtaining therequired
capabilities within the desired size. The initial finger controlstrategy
is presented along with examples of obtainable grasps.

陈说了用于空间操作的可观拟人化的人类尺度机器人手的统筹。那多少个手指手与其构成的一手和前臂相结合,具备十多少个单身的自由度。

该装置在通过加压式太空性格很顽强在艰难险阻或巨大压力面前不屈手套操作时可相当好地相似于宇宙航银行人士的手的运动学和所需的强度。详细表达了用于知足那些必要的机制及其背后的希图意见。集成经历揭露了与收获所需大小内的所需作用有关的挑衅。呈现发轫手指调节计策以致可获得的抓握的事例。

 1 Introduction

The requirements for extra-vehicularactivity (EVA) onboard the
International Space Station (ISS) are expected to beconsiderable. These
maintenance and construction activities are expensive andhazardous.
Astronauts must prepare extensively before they may leave therelative
safety of the space station, including pre-breathing at space suit
airpressure for up to 4 hours. Once outside, the crew person must be
extremelycautious to prevent damage to the suit. The Robotic Systems
Technology Branchat the NASA Johnson Space Center is currently
developing robot systems toreduce the EVA burden on space station crew
and also to serve in a rapidresponse capacity. One such system, Robonaut
is being designed and built tointerface with external space station
systems that only have human interfaces.To this end, the Robonaut hand
[1] provides a high degree of anthropomorphicdexterity ensuring a
compatibility with many of these interfaces. Many groundbreaking
dexterous robot hands [2-7] have been developed over the past
twodecades. These devices make it possible for a robot manipulator to
grasp andmanipulate objects that are not designed to be robotically M.
A. DiftlerAutomation and Robotics Department Lockheed Martin Houston,
Texas 77058 diftler@jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534 compatible. While
several grippers [8-12] havebeen designed for space use and some even
tested in space [8,9,11], nodexterous robotic hand has been flown in
EVA conditions. The Robonaut Hand isone of several hands [13,14] under
development for space EVA use and is closestin size and capability to a
suited astronaut’s hand.

预测国际空间站(ISS)上的车外活动(EVA)需求极其可观。这个保险和建设活动是昂贵且危殆的。宇宙航银行人员必需在大概离开空间站的相对安全此前行行广泛的备选,包罗预先呼吸太空性格很顽强在荆棘载途或巨大压力面前不屈空气压力长达4小时。大器晚成旦在窗外,机组职员必需十一分步步为营,以免御损坏宇宙航行服。美利哥国家航空宇航局Johnson航天大旨的机器人系统工夫处近些日子正在开拓机器人系统,以减少空间站职员的EVA担当,况且服务于快速反应技巧。三个如此的系统,罗布onaut正在设计和建筑,以便与只有人机分界面包车型地铁外表空间站系统接口。为此,罗布onaut手[1]提供了惊人的比喻灵巧性,以保障与广大那么些接口的包容性。在过去的八十年中,已经支付出不菲破纪录的利落机器人手[2-7]。这么些设施使得机器人操纵器能够吸引和决定未被设计为机器人的实体宽容。固然有多少个夹具[8-12]规划用来空间应用,有个别以至在满端阳张开了测量检验[8,9,11],但绝非灵巧的机器人手在EVA条件下飞行。
罗布onaut手是空间EVA使用中正在开拓的八只手之生龙活虎[13,14],它的尺码和技巧最周边切合宇宙航银行人士的手。

 2 Design and Control Philosophy

The requirements for interacting withplanned space station EVA crew
interfaces and tools provided the starting pointfor the Robonaut Hand
design [1]. Both power (enveloping) and dexterous grasps(finger tip)
are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain toolsrequire
single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. Amaximum
force of 20 lbs. and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove
andinstall EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [15]. All EVA tools
and ORUs mustbe retained in the event of a power loss. It is possible to
either buildinterfaces that will be both robotically and EVA compatible
or build a seriesof robot tools to interact with EVA crew interfaces and
tools. However, bothapproaches are extremely costly and will of course
add to a set of spacestation tools and interfaces that are already
planned to be quite extensive.The Robonaut design will make all EVA crew
interfaces and tools roboticallycompatible by making the robot’s hand
EVA compatible. EVA compatibility isdesigned into the hand by
reproducing, as closely.as possible, the size,kinematics, and strength
of the space suited astronaut hand and wrist. Thenumber of fingers and
the joint travel reproduce the workspace for apressurized suit glove.
The Robonaut Hand reproduces many of the necessarygrasps needed for
interacting with EVA interfaces. Staying within this sizeenvelope
guarantees that the Robonaut Hand will be able to fit into all
therequired places. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed
to meetor exceed the human hand in a pressurized glove. The hand and
wrist parts are  sizedto reproduce the necessary strength to meet
maximum EVA crew requirements.Figure1: Robonaut Hand Control system
design for a dexterous robot handmanipulating a variety of tools has
unique problems. The majority of theliterature available, summarized in
[2,16], pertains to dexterous manipulation.This literature
concentrates on using three dexterous fingers to obtain forceclosure and
manipulate an object using only fingertip contact. While useful,this
type of manipulation does not lend itself to tool use. Most EVA tools
arebest used in an enveloping grasp. Two enveloping grasp types, tool
and power,must be supported by the tool-using hand in addition to the
dexterous grasp.Although literature is available on enveloping grasps
[17], it is not asadvanced as the dexterous literature. The main
complication involvesdetermining and controlling the forces at the many
contact areas involved in anenveloping grasp. While work continues on
automating enveloping grasps, a tele-operationcontrol strategy has been
adopted for the Robonaut hand. This method ofoperation was proven with
the NASA DART/FITT system [18]. The DART/FITT systemutilizes Cyber
glove® virtual reality gloves, worn by the operator, to
controlStanford/YPL hands to successfully perform space relevant tasks.
2.1 SpaceCompatibility EVA space compatibility separates the Robonaut
Hand from manyothers. All component materials meetoutgassing
restrictions to prevent contamination that couldinterfere with other
space systems. Parts made of different materials aretoleranced to
perform acceptably under the extreme temperature variationsexperienced
in EVA conditions. Brushless motors are used to ensure long life ina
vacuum. All parts are designed to use proven space lubricants.

与安排的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互作用的须要为罗布onaut手设计供给提供了源点[1]。

垄断(monopoly卡塔尔EVA乘工作者具须要本领(包络)和灵活的抓握(指尖)。有个别工具要求双臂或多手指动作,同一时间牢牢吸引。
20磅的最大才干。并索要30英寸磅的扭矩来拆除与搬迁和安装EVA轨道可改造单元(ORU)[15]。

具有EVA工具和ORU必得在发生断电时保留。能够营造宽容机器人和EVA的接口,或许创设意气风发密密层层机器人工具来与EVA机组接口和工具进行交互。可是,那二种情势都以非常高昂的,何况当然会增加后生可畏套空间站工具和接口,那个工具和接口已经安排得至极广泛。
罗布onaut设计将使机器人的手EVA宽容,进而使全部EVA机组人机分界面和工具机器人包容。通过尽大概地重现切合宇宙航银行人员手和花招的上空的尺寸,运动学和强度,将EVA包容性设计在手中。手指和一齐路程的数据再一次现身了加压套装手套的劳作空间。
罗布onaut手掌再次出现了与EVA分界面交互作用所需的众多必备手腕。保持在这里个尺寸范围内保证罗布onaut手将能够适应全体须要的地点。花招节距和偏航的联手路程被规划为在加压手套中达到或超越人口。手部和腕部的尺寸可以复出供给的强度,以满意最大的EVA机组人士的渴求。

图1:罗布onaut手控系统设计灵巧的机器人手操纵各个工具具备特有的主题材料。在[2,16]中总括的大部文献都关乎到灵巧的垄断(monopoly卡塔尔(英语:State of Qatar)。这个文献聚集于采纳七个灵巧手指来博取力闭归并仅使用手指接触来支配物体。尽管有用,但那体系型的操作不适用于工具使用。大许多EVA工具最适合用于包围式抓握。除了灵巧的抓握之外,还非得接纳工具用手来帮衬二种包络抓握类型,工具和力量。固然文献可用以包络抓握[17],但它并不像灵巧手那样先进。主要的繁杂包罗鲜明和调控关系包络抓握的累累接触区域的力。纵然自动化包络抓握的办事仍在后续,但Robonaut手已采取远程操作调整战略。美利坚合众国国家航空航天局DART
/ 宝来T系统验证了这种操作方法[18]。 DART /
PASSATT系统选用由操作员佩戴的Cyber​​glove®虚构现实手套来决定Stanford /
YPL手以打响推行空间相关职务。

 2.1上空宽容性EVA空间兼容性将罗布onaut手与其余众六个人分开。全体组件质感均满足除气节制,防止卫可能苦恼别的空间系列的污染。不相同素材制作而成的构件在EVA条件下经受极端温度变化时怀有可担任的习性。无刷电机用于确定保证真空中的长寿命。全体零器件都兼备为使用经过验证的长空光滑油。

 3 Design

The Robonaut Hand (figure 1) has a total offourteen degrees of freedom.
It consists of a forearm which houses the motorsand drive electronics, a
two degree of freedom wrist, and a five finger, twelvedegree of freedom
hand. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter atits base and
is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors,
12separate circuit boards, and all of the wiring for the hand. Y= Figure
2: Handcomponents The hand itself is broken down into two sections
(figure 2): adexterous work set which is used for manipulation, and a
grasping set whichallows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while
manipulating or actuating agiven object. This is an essential feature
for tool use [13]. The dexterous setconsists of two three degree of
freedom fingers (pointer and index) and a threedegree of freedom
opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, one degreeof freedom
fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm degree of freedom. All of
thefingers are shock mounted into the palm (figure 2). In order to match
the sizeof an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside
the hand, andmechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive
train. Past handdesigns [2,3] have used tendon drives which utilize
complex pulley systems orsheathes, both of which pose serious wear and
reliability problems when used inthe EVA space environment. To avoid the
problems associated with tendons, thehand uses flex shafts to transmit
power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motionof
the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using
smallmodular leadscre was semblies. The result is acompact yet rugged
drive train.Over all the hand is equipped with forty-three sensors not
including tactilesensing. Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute
position sensors andeach motor is  equipped with incrementalencoders.
Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wristball joint linksare
instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback.

3设计

罗布onaut手(图1)总共有市斤个自由度。

它由具有电机和驱动电子装置的膀子,多少个自由度的花招和

多个五指,十一自由度的手组成。

前臂的尾部直径为4英寸,长度大约8英寸,可容纳全体15个电机,12个独立电路板以致具备手部布线。

手部组件手部自己分为两局地。一个用以操作的灵巧专门的学问组(食指和中指),以致一个抓握组(无名氏指和小指),它同意手在操作或运行给准期保持平稳的抓握目标。这是工具使用的基本特征[13]。

灵巧组由五个三自由度手指(食指和中指)和叁个三度自由周旋拇指组成。抓握组由八个,三个自由度指(佚名指和小指)和贰个手掌自由度组成。全部的手指头都被安装在手心上(图2)。

为了合营宇宙航银行职员戴起头套的手的朗朗上口,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。过去的手工设计[2,3]行使了利用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那二种装置在EVA空间情状中使用时都会诱致严重的损坏和可相信性难点。为了防止与肌腱有关的难题,手使用柔性轴将电力从前臂的电机传输到手指。柔性轴的旋转运动因此微型模块化导丝调换到手中的线性运动。结果是紧密而深厚的传动系。

具备的手都布署了四十一个(不包蕴触觉)传感器。每一种接头都配有嵌入式相对地方传感器,各种电机都配有增量式编码器。各种导螺纹钢筋组件甚至花招关节连杆均被器具为称重传感器以提供力反馈。

3.1

Finger Drive Train

Figure 3: Finger leadscrew assembly Thefinger drive consists of a
brushless DC motor equipped with an encoder and a 14to 1 planetary gear
head. Coupled to the motors are stainless steel highflexibility flex
shafts. The flex shafts are kept short in order to minimizevibration and
protected by a sheath consisting of an open spring covered withTeflon.
At the distal end of the flex shaft is a small modular leadscrewassembly
(figure 3). This assembly converts the rotary motion of the flex shaftto
linear motion. The assembly includes: a leadscrew which has a flex
shaftconnection and bearing seats cut into it, a shell which is designed
to act as aload cell, support bearings, a nut with rails that mate with
the shell (inorder to eliminate off axis loads), and a short cable
length which attaches tothe nut. The strain gages are mounted on the
flats of the shell indicated infigure 3. The top of the leadscrew
assemblies are clamped into the palm of thehand to allow the shell to
stretch or compress under load, thereby giving adirect reading of force
acting on the fingers. Earlier models _of the assemblycontained an
integral reflective encoder cut into the leadscrew. This
configurationworked well but was eliminated from the hand in order to
minimize the wiring inthe hand.

Figure 4: Dexterous finger

3.1指头传动系统

图3:手指点螺丝杆组件

手指驱动器包涵

         二个陈设编码器和

         14:1行星齿轮头的无刷直流动机。

与电动机耦合的是不锈钢高柔性软轴。

         柔性轴保持十分的短以压缩颠荡,

         并由此由聚四氟混合芳香烃覆盖的发话弹簧组成的护套进行保护。

在柔性轴的远端是叁个微型模块化螺纹钢筋组件(图3)。该器件将柔性轴的团团转运动转换为直线运动。该器件饱含:

         三个丝杠,它装有二个柔性轴连接和切入在那之中的轴承座,

         三个布置作为于睿传感器的外壳,支撑轴承,

        
贰个带有与外壳同盟的导轨的螺母(为了破除轴负载)以致总是到螺母上的短丝缆长度。    
布鲁诺传感器安装在图3所示的壳体的平面上。将丝杠组件的顶上部分压紧在掌心中,以允许壳体在负载下张开或调整和减弱,进而直接读取作用于手指。

        
组件的较早型号还包蕴切入导螺丝杆的全体式反射编码器。这种布局运维优异,但后来从手中删除,以尽量收缩手中的接线。

图4:灵巧的指尖

3.2

Dexterous Fingers

 Thethree degree of freedom dexterous fingers (figure 4) include the
finger mount,a yoke, two proximal finger segment half shells, a
decoupling link assembly, amid finger segment, a distal finger segment,
two connecting links, and springsto eliminate backlash (not shown in
figure). Figure 5 Finger base cam The basejoint of the finger has two
degrees of freedom: yaw (+ /- 25 degrees) and pitch(I00 degrees). These
motions are provided by two leadscrew assemblies that workin a
differential manner. The short cables that extend from the
leadscrewassemblies attach into the cammed grooves in the proximal
finger segments halfshells (figure 5). The use of cables eliminates a
significant number of jointsthat would otherwise be needed to handle the
two degree of freedom base joint.The cammed grooves control the bend
radius of the connecting cables from theleadscrew assemblies (keeping it
larger to avoid stressing the cables andallowing oversized cables to be
used). The grooves also allow a nearly constantlever arm to be
maintained throughout the full range of finger motion. Becausethe
connecting cables are kept short (approximately I inch) and their
bendradius is controlled (allowing the cables to be relatively large in
diameter(.07 inches)), the cables act like stiff rods in the working
direction (closingtoward the palm) and like springs in the opposite
direction. In other words,the ratio of the cable length to its

diameter is such that the cables are stiff enough to push the finger
openbut if the finger contacts or impacts anobject the cables will
buckle, allowing the finger to collapse out of the way.

 Figure 6: Decoupling link The second and thirdjoints of the dexterous
fingers are directly linked so that they close withequal angles. These
joints are driven by a separate leadscrew assembly througha decoupling
linkage (figure 6). The short cable on the leadscrew assembly isattached
to the pivoting cable termination in the decoupling link. The flex inthe
cable allows the actuation to pass across the two degree of freedom
basejoint, without the need for complex mechanisms. The linkage is
designed so thatthe arc length of the cable is nearly constant
regardless of the position ofthe base joint (compare arc A to arc B in
figure 6). This makes the motion ofdistal joints approximately
independent of the base joint. figure 2 has aproximal and distal segment
and is similar in design to the dexterous fingersbut has significantly
more yaw travel and a hyper extended pitch. The thumb isalso mounted to
the palm at such an angle that the increase in range of motionresults in
a reasonable emulation of human thumb motion. This type of
mountingenables the hand to perform grasps that are not possible with
the common practiceof mounting the thumb directly opposed to the fingers
[2,3,14]. The thumb basejoint has 70 degrees of yaw and 110 degrees of
pitch. The distal joint has 80degrees of pitch. Linkages Finger Mount
Figure 7:Grasping Finger The actuationof the base joint is the same as
the dexterous fingers with the exception thatcammed detents have been
added to keep the bend radius of the cable large atthe extreme yaw
angles. The distal segment of the thumb is driven through adecoupling
linkage in a manner similar to that of the manipulating fingers.
Theextended yaw travel of the thumb base makes complete distal
mechanicaldecoupling difficult. Instead the joints are decoupled in
software.

3.2眼尖手快的手指头

 四个自由度的利落手指(图4)包括

         手指支架,

         轭,

         三个近侧手指段半壳,

         解耦连杆组件,

         中指段,

         远侧手指段,

         七个三番五次连杆和弹簧以肃清间隙(未在图中显得)。

图5手指底座凸轮

手指的底盘接头具备多个自由度:偏航(+ / –

25度)和俯仰(I00度)。那几个活动由四个以分化措实践事的导螺纹钢筋组件提供。从螺丝杆组件延伸的短丝缆连接到近端指状部分半壳中的凸轮槽中(图5)。使用丝缆消灭了拍卖几个自由度尾巴部分接头所需的大方明了。凸轮槽用于调整连接丝缆从导螺丝杆组件的波折半径(保持超级大以幸免对丝缆施压并同意利用过大的丝缆)。凹槽还同目的在于全部手指运动范围内保障大概恒定的杠杆臂。由于总是丝缆保持很短(大约1英寸)况兼其卷曲半径受到调控(允许丝缆的直径相对超大(0.07英寸)),由此丝缆在工作方向上像硬棒相近起效果(贴近手掌)和像相反方向的弹簧同样。换句话说,丝缆长度与其直径的比重使得

         丝缆丰硕坚硬以将手指推开,

         但即便手指接触或撞击物体,则丝缆会盘曲,使手指塌陷。

 图6:解耦链接

灵活手指的第二和第四个枢纽直接相接,以便它们以卓殊的角度关闭。这一个接头由二个独门的导螺丝杆组件通过叁个别离联动装置驱动(图6)。丝杠组件上的短丝缆连接到去耦链路中的枢轴丝缆终端。丝缆中的盘曲允许致动穿过多个自由度的基部接头,而没有须求复杂的部门。连杆的设计使得丝缆的弧长度大致恒定,不管基座接头的职位怎么(比较图6中的弧A与弧B)。那使得远端关节的运动大约独立于基部关节。图2存有近端和远端段,并且在规划上看似于灵巧指状物,但具备分明更加多的偏航路程和细长的间距。拇指也以如此的角度安装在掌心上,使得移动范围的加码招致人类拇指活动的客观仿真。这种装置方式可以使手实行抓握,那与平常的将拇指直接放在手指对面包车型地铁老规矩比较是不容许的[2,3,14]。拇指基座关节具有70度偏航和110度俯仰。远端关节有80度的间隔。连杆手指安装图7:抓住手指基座关节的动作与灵巧的手指相似,但扩充了凸轮式制动器以维持丝缆的屈曲半径在宏大偏航角度时一点都不小。拇指的远侧部分以近乎于决定手指的章程被驱动通过剥离联合浮动装置。拇指基座的恢弘偏航行路线程使完全远端机械解耦困难。相反,关节在软件中解耦。

3.5

Palm

3.3

Grasping Fingers

The grasping fingers have three pitchjoints each with 90 degrees of
travel. The fingers are actuated by oneleadscrew assembly and use the
same cam groove (figure 5) in the proximalfinger segment half shell as
with the manipulating fingers. The 7-bar fingerlinkage is similar to
that of the dexterous fingers except that the decouplinglink is removed
and the linkage ties to the finger mount (figure 7). In
thisconfiguration each joint of the finger closes down with
approximately equalangles. An alternative configuration of the finger
that is currently beingevaluated replaces the distal link with a stiff
limited travel spring to allowthe finger to better conform while
grasping an object.

3.5手掌

3.3抓握手指

抓握手指有八个俯仰关节,每一种难题都有90度的里程。手指由二个导螺丝杆组件致动,而且在操作指状物的近端手指段半壳中采用相仿的凸轮槽(图5)。
7-bar指形连杆与灵巧指形的指形连杆相像,分歧之处在于去耦连杆被拆毁何况连杆与手指支架连接(图7)。在这里种构造中,手指的各种难题都是大约也就是的角度关闭。当前正在评估的手指的代替配置用刚性有限路程弹簧代替远侧连杆,以允许手指在掀起物体时更加好地适合。

 3.4 Thumb

The thumb is key to obtaining many of thegrasps required for interfacing
with EVA tools. The thumb shown in The palmmechanism (figure 8) provides
a mount for the two grasping fingers and acupping motion that enhances
stability for tool grasps. This allows the hand tograsp an object in a
manner that aligns the tool’s axis with the forearm rollaxis. This is
essential for the use of many common tools, like screwdrivers.The
mechanism includes two pivoting metacarpals, a common shaft, and
twotorsion springs. The grasping fingers and their leadscrew assemblies
mount intothe metacarpals. The metacarpals are attached to the palm on a
common shaft.The first torsion spring is placed between the two
metacarpals providing a pivotingforce between the two. The second
torsion spring is placed between the secondmetacarpal and the palm,
forcing both of the metacarpals back against the palm.The actuating
leadscrew assembly mounts into the palm and the short cableattaches to
the cable termination on the first metacarpal. The torsion springsare
sized such that as the leadscrew assembly pulls down the first
metacarpal, thesecond metacarpal folows a troughly half the angle of the
first. In this waythe palm is able to cup in a way similar to that of
the human hand without thefingers colliding.

Figure 9 Wrist mechanism

 COMMON SHAFT PALM CASTING The wrist isactuated in a differential manner
through two linear actuators (figure 9). Thelinear actuators consist of
a slider riding in recirculating ball tracks and acustom, hollow shaft
brushless DC motor with an integral ballscrew. Theactuators attach to
the palm through ball joint links, which are mounted in thepre-loaded
ball sockets. Figure 8: Palm mechanism The fingers are mounted tothe
palm at slight angles to each other as opposed to the common practice
ofmounting them parallel to each other• This mounting allows the fingers
to closetogether similar to a human hand. To further improve the
reliability andruggedness of the hand, all of the fingers are mounted on
shock loaders. Thisallows them to take very high impacts without
incurring damage.

3.4拇指

大拇指是得到广大与EVA工具接口所需的握手的根本。手掌机构(图8)中显得的大拇指为四个抓手提供了一个支架,并提供了一个拔??动作,加强了工具抓握的安定。那允许手以使工具的轴线与前臂摇拽轴线对齐的秘籍吸引物体。那对相当多常用工具(如螺丝起子)的选取特别关键。该部门包罗四个枢转掌骨,二个联机的轴和多少个扭力弹簧。抓手指和她俩的导螺丝杆组件安装到掌骨。掌骨连接在相像根轴上的魔掌上。第4个扭力弹簧放置在四个掌骨之间,在两者之间提供枢转力。第一个扭力弹簧放置在其次掌骨和手掌之间,反逼两掌骨靠在手心上。致动导螺丝杆组件安装在掌心中,短丝缆连接到第风流倜傥掌骨上的丝缆终端。扭力弹簧的尺码使妥当导螺纹钢筋组件拉下第大器晚成掌骨时,第二掌骨以百分之五十的角度折叠第后生可畏掌骨。通过这种方法,手掌能够以与职员相像的章程张开盖碗的揉搓而不会发出手指碰撞。

图9花招机构

 普通轴手掌铸造花招通过五个线性试行器以不一致方式驱动(图9)。线性推行器由三个滑块和一个包蕴三个安然无事滚珠丝杠的定制空心轴无刷直流动机组成。推行器通过设置在先行加载的球座中的球节连杆连接到手心。图8:手掌机制手指相互以微小的角度安装在掌心上,那与将手指安装在人机联作平行的貌似做法反而。•这种装置使手指能够像人手相同相近在风华正茂道。为了进一层升高手的可信赖性和牢固性,全部手指都设置在减震垫上。那使她们力所能致在不引起损坏的动静下选择超级高的影响。

 3.6 Wrist/Forearm

 Design The wrist (figure 9) provides anunconstrained pass through to
maximize the bend radii for the finger flexshafts while approximating
the wrist pitch and yaw travel of a pressurizedastronaut glove. Total
travel is +/- 70 degrees of pitch and +/- 30 degrees ofyaw. The two axes
intersect with each other and the centerline of the forearmroll axis.
When connected with the Robonaut Arm [19], these three axes combineat
the center of the wrist cuff yielding an efficient kinematic solution.
Thecuff is mounted to the forearm through shock loaders for added
safety. Figure10: Forearm The forearm is configured as a ribbed shell
with six cover plates.Packaging all the required equipment in an EVA
forearm size volume is achallenging task. The six cover plates are
skewed at a variety of angles andkeyed mounting tabs are used to
minimize forearm surface area. Mounted on twoof the cover plates are the
wrist linear actuators, which fit into the forearmsymmetrically to
maintain efficient kinematics. The other four cover plateprovides mounts
for clusters of three finger motors (Figure 10). Symmetry isnot required
here since the flex shafts easily bend to accommodate odd angles.The
cover plates are also designed to act as heat sinks. Along with the
motors,custom hybrid motor driver chips are mounted to the cover plates.

3.6腕/前臂

 设计手段(图9)提供了无约束的通过,以最大化手指柔性轴的屈曲半径,同有时间肖似加压宇宙航银行人员手套的花招节距和偏航行路线程。总行程为+/-
70度的俯仰和+/-
30度的偏航。这两条轴线互相交叉,并与前臂滚动轴的中央线相交。当与Robonaut
Arm
[19]连天时,那八个轴线结合在花招袖口的中央,产生快捷的运动学解决方案。袖套通过减震器安装在前臂上,以追加安全性。

图10:前臂前臂配置为带五个盖板的肋状外壳。将全部必要的道具包装在EVA前臂尺寸体量中是风华正茂项具备挑衅性的任务。四个盖板以各样角度倾斜,而且使用键控安装接片来使前臂表面面积最小化。腕部直线执行器安装在两个盖板上,对称地稳住在前臂上以保持飞速的位移。别的多个盖板为三个手指头马达组提供支架(图10)。这里无需对称,因为柔性轴轻易盘曲以适应诡异的角度。盖板也陈设用作散热器。随着电机,定制混合电机驱动器集成电路安装在盖板上。

4

Integration Challenges

As might be expected, many integrationchallenges arose during hand
prototyping, assembly and initial testing. Some ofthe issues and current
resolutions follow. Many of the parts in the hand useextremely complex
geometry to minimize the part count and reduce the size ofthe hand.
Fabrication of these parts was made possible by casting them inaluminum
directly from stereo lithography models. This process yieldsrelatively
high accuracy parts at a minimal cost. The best example of this isthe
palm, which has a complex shape, and over 50 holes in it, few of which
areorthogonal to each other. Finger joint control is achieved through
antagonisticcable pairs for the yaw joints and pre-load springs for the
pitch joints.Initially, single compression springs connected through
ball links to the frontof the dexterous fingers applied insufficient
moment to the base joints at thefull open position. Double tension
springs connected to the backs of thefingers improved pre-loading over
more of the joint range. However, desiredpre-loading in the fully open
position resulted in high forces during closing.Work on establishing the
optimal pre-load and making the preload forces linearover the full range
is under way. The finger cables have presented bothmechanical mounting
and mathematical challenges. The dexterous fingers usesingle mounting
screws to hold the cables in place while avoiding cable pinch.This
configuration allows the cables to flex during finger motion and yields
areasonably constant lever arm. However assembly with a single screw
isdifficult especially when evaluating different cable diameters. The
thumb usesa more secure lock that includes a plate with a protrusion
that securely pressesdown on the cable in its channel. The trade between
these two techniques iscontinuing. Similar cable attachment devices are
also evolving for the otherfinger joints. The cable flexibility makes
closed form kinematics difficult.The bend of the cable at the mounting
points as the finger moves is not easy tomodel accurately. Any closed
form model requires simplifying assumptionsregarding cable bending and
moving contact with the finger cams. A simplersolution that captures all
the relevant data employs multi-dimensional datamaps that are
empirically obtained off-line. With a sufficiently highresolution these
maps provide accurate forward and inverse kinematics data. Thewrist
design (figure 9) evolved from a complex multibar mechanism to a
simplertwo-dimensional slider crank hook joint. Initially curved ball
links connectedthe sliders to the palm with cams that rotated the links
to avoid the wristcuff during pitch motion. After wrist cuff and palm
redesign, the presentstraight ball links were achieved. The finger
leadscrews are non-back drivableand in an enveloping grasp ensure
positive capture in the event of a powerfailure. If power can not be
restored in a timely fashion, it may be necessaryfor the other Robonaut
hand [19] or for an EVA crew person to manually open thehand. An early
hand design incorporated a simple back out ring that throughfriction
wheels engaged each finger drive train and slowly opened each
fingerjoint. While this works well in the event of a power failure,
experiments withthe coreless brushless DC motors revealed a problem when
a motor fails due tooverheating. The motor winding insulation heats up,
expands and seizes themotor, preventing back-driving. A new contingency
technique for opening thehand that will accommodate both motor seizing
and power loss is beinginvestigated.

4整合挑战

正如所料,在手工业原型,装配和始发测量检验中冒出了大多并入挑衅。此中有的标题和当下的缓和方案如下。手中的超级多零件都使用特别复杂的几何样子,以尽量收缩零器件数量并压缩手的尺寸。那些零件的制作可以通过直接从立体光刻模型将它们铸造在铝中来得以完毕。那一个进程以微小的工本产生对立高精度的预制零件。此中最棒的例证正是手掌,形状复杂,有50八个洞,当中很稀有彼此正交的。

手指关节调整是因此用于偏航关节的水火不相容丝缆对和用于俯仰关节的预加载弹簧完成的。最早,通过球形连杆连选用灵巧指状物的前部的单个压缩弹簧在全开地方向基部关节施加不足的力矩。连接到手指背部的双杜震宇弹簧校正了越来越多关节范围的预加载。但是,在一同张开地点期望的预加载在关门时期变成较高的力。正在进展确立最好预加载和使预加载力在全数范围内线性化的劳作。指状丝缆提议了教条安装和数学挑战。灵巧的手指头使用单个安装螺钉将丝缆固定到位,同有难题候防止丝缆压紧。这种布局允许丝缆在指尖运动时期卷曲并发出合理稳固的杠杆臂。可是,在评估差别的丝缆直径时,使用单个螺丝钉实行组装特不方便。拇支使用更安全的锁,当中囊括一块带有优异部分的平板,该平板可稳定地按压其通道中的丝缆。那二种技巧之间的交易正在继续。相像的丝缆连接装置也在为任何手指关节演变。丝缆的油滑使密闭式运动学变得艰巨。手指运动时设置点处的丝缆盘曲不易正确建立模型。任何密封模型都急需简化有关丝缆盘曲和与手指凸轮接触的只要。捕获全部有关数据的更简短的缓慢解决方案选拔凭资历在线离线获取的多维数据图。具备丰盛高的分辨率,那几个地图提供可靠的正向和反向运动学数据。

招式设计(图9)从繁缛的多杆机构演化为更简短的二维滑块曲柄吊钩接头。最早卷曲的球形连杆将滑块连接到手心,并包括凸轮,以便在俯仰运动时期旋转连杆以回避腕带。在重新规划手腕袖口和手掌之后,达成了日前的直线球链接。手指引向螺丝杆不可逆向驱动(应该代表没电时无法动,有电时能够双向动),何况在包络抓握中可保险在爆发电源故障时贯彻正向捕捉。要是无法立刻过来引力,大概供给其余罗布onaut手[19]抑或EVA机组职员手动张开手。

早期的手部设计组合了三个粗略的退出环,通过摩擦轮啮合种种手指传动系,并缓缓打开各样手指关节。即使这种情景在产生电源故障时运转突出,但无芯无刷直流动机的尝试发表了当电机由于过热而发生故障时的标题。电机绕组绝缘加热,扩张并攻陷电机,幸免反向驱动。正在切磋生龙活虎种新的应急本事,用于张开将容纳马巴拿马城死和功率损失的手。

5

Initial Finger Control Design and Test

Before any operation can occur, basicposition control of the Robonaut
hand joints must be developed. Depending onthe joint, finger joints are
controlled either by a single motor or anantagonistic pair of motors.
Each of these motors is attached to the fingerdrive train assembly shown
in figure 3. A simple PD controller is used toperform motor position
control tests. When the finger joint is unloaded,position control of the
motor drive system is simple. When the finger isloaded, two mechanical
effects influence the drive system dynamics. The flexshaft, which
connects the motor to the lead screw, winds up and acts as atorsional
spring. Although adding an extra system dynamic, the high ratio ofthe
lead screw sufficiently masks the position error caused by the state of
theflex shaft for teleoperated control. The second effect during loading
is theincreased frictional force in the lead screw. The non-backdrivable
nature ofthe motor drive system effectively decouples the motor from the
applied force.Therefore, during joint loading, the motor sees the
increasing torque requiredto turn the lead screw. The motor is capable
of supplying the torque requiredto turn the lead screw during normal
loading. However, thermal constraintslimit the motor’s endurance at high
torque. To accommodate this constraint, thecontroller incorporates force
feedback from the strain gauges installed on thelead screw shell. The
controller utilizes the non-back drivability of the motordrive system
and properly turns down motor output torque once a desired forceis
attained. During a grasp, a command to move in a direction that
willincrease the force beyond the desired level is ignored. If the
forced rops offor a command in a direction that will relieve the force
is issued, the motor revertsto normal position control operation. This
control strategy successfully lowersmotor heating to acceptable levels
and reduces power consumption. To perform jointcontrol, the kinematics,
which relates motor output joint output, must be determined. As
statedearlier, due to varying cable interactions a closed form
kinematics algorithm isnot tractable. Once the finger joint hall-effect
based position sensors arecalibrated using are solver, a semi-autonomous
kinematic calibration procedure forboth forward and inverse kinematics
is used to build look-up tables. Variationsbetween kinematics and
hall-effect sensor outputs during operation are seen inregions where the
pre-loading springs are not effective. Designs using differentspring
strategies are underdevelopment to resolve this problem. To enhance
positioningaccuracy, a closed loop finger joint position controller
employing hall-effect sensorposition feedback is used as part of this
kinematic calibration procedure. ableto successfully manipulate many EVA
tool.

5开始手指调控规划和测量试验

在别的操作发生早先,必需费用罗布onaut手关节的核心地方调控。依照问题的不等,手指关节能够由单个电机或绝没错马达调整。每种电机都总是到图3所示的指尖传动系组件上。二个简约的PD调整器用于实践电飞机地方置调节测量试验。

当手指关节卸载时,电机驱动系统的岗位调控很简短。

当手指装入时,八个机械效应会影响驱动系统的引力。

   
将电机连选择丝杠的柔性轴卷起并作为扭转弹簧。尽管扩充了三个外加的类别动态,但高比率的丝杠足以覆盖由遥控操作的柔性轴状态引起的任务基值误差。

加载进程中的第1个影响是扩张了丝杠的摩擦力。电机驱动系统的不可逆性质使电机与施加的力有效地分别。由此,在关键加载时期,电机遇见到转动丝杠所需的扩充的扭矩。电机能够在健康负载时提供转动丝杠所需的扭矩。不过,热限定会节制电机在高转矩时的耐久性。为了适应那风流浪漫限量,调整器将设置在导螺丝杆壳体上的应变仪的力反馈结合起来。调整器选拔电机驱动系统的无前驱动能力,并在实现所需的力后精确地下跌电机输出扭矩。在抓取进程中,将会沿着叁个大方向移动的一声令下将被忽略,该方向会将力增至超过所需的水平。如若免强断电或在一个可以释放力的大势发生八个命令,电机将复苏不奇怪的地点调整操作。该调控计策成功地将电机加热降到可选取的等级次序并减弱功耗。

为了推行一同决定,必须分明与外燃机输出联合输出有关的位移本性。如前所述,由于丝缆人机联作功效的例外,密闭情势的运动学算法不易处理。生机勃勃旦基于手指关节霍尔效应的职分传感器使用解算器实行校准,则使用用孙铎向和反向运动学的自行运动高校准程序来构建查找表。运维期间霍尔传感器输出与霍尔效应传感器输出之间的调换可以预知于预加载弹簧无效的区域。使用不一致弹簧计谋的设计不足以消释这么些标题。为抓牢定位精度,接受霍尔效应传感器地方反馈的闭环手指关节地点调节器作为此活动学园准程序的后生可畏局地。能够得逞调节多数EVA工具。

SeveralexampletoolmanipulationsusingtheRobonauthand
underteleoperatedcontrolareshowninfigures11and12.
Figure11:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Handusingenvelopingpowergraspstoholdtools
An importantsafetyfeatureof thehand,itsabilityto
passivelycloseinresponsetoacontactonthebackof
thefingers,causesproblemsfor closedloopjoint
controlduringnormaloperation.Furtherrefinementof the
kinematiccalibrationandthestraingaugeforcesensorsirequiredtoreliablydeterminewhenthefingersarebeing
uncontrollablycosed.Oncethisinformation,
alongwithabettermodelforthedrivetraindynamicsisavailable,thejointcontrollercanbemodifiedtodistinguishteloaded
fromthenormaloperatingmode.Althoughconsiderableworkstillneedstobedone,joint
controlsatisfactoryforteleoperatedcontrolof thehand hasbeenattained. For
initial tests,the handwascontrolledin joint
modefrominputsderivedfromtheCyberglove®wornbytheoperator.TheCybergloveuses
bendsensors,whichareinterpretedbytheCyberglove
electronicstodeterminethepositionof 18actionsof theoperator’shand.
Someof theseactionsareabsolute
positionsoffingerjointswhileotherarerelativemotions
betweenjoints.Thechallengeisdevelopingamapping betweenthe 18
absoluteandrelativejointpositions determinedby
theCybergloveandthe12jointsof the Robonaut hand. Thismapping must result
in the Robonaut hand tracking the operator’s hand as well aspossible.
While some joints are directly mapped, others required heuristic
algorithmsto fuse data from several glove sensors to produce a hand
joint position command.In conjunction with an auto mated glove
calibration program, a satisfactory mappingis experimentally obtainable.

Figure12:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Hand

Using these custom mappings, operators are

using
dexterousgraspsforfinetoolmaipulationTofacilitatetestingofthehandbaselevelpadsasshown
infigures11,12werefabricatedfromDow Cornings Silastic®E.
Thepadsprovideanonslipcompliant surfacenecessary
forpositivelygraspinganobject.Thesepadswillserveasthefoundationfortactilesensorsandbe
coveredwithaprotectiveglove.Futureplansincludethedevelopment of
agraspcriteriameasureforthestabilityofthehandgrasp.Thesecriteriawillbeusedtoassisttheoperatorindeterminingif
agrasp isacceptable.Sincethebaselineoperationplandoesnot
involveforcefeedbacktotheoperator,visualfeedback onlymaybeinsufficient
toproperlydetermineif agraspisstable.Usingsomeknowledgeof
theobjectwhichisbeinggraspedinconjunctionwiththeexistingleadscrew
forcesensorsandasmallsetofadditional tactilesensors
installedonthefingersandpalm,thecontrolsystemwilldeterminetheacceptabilityof
thegraspandindicatethat measuretotheoperator.Theoperatorcanthendecide
howbestousethisdatainreconfiguringthegrasptoa
morestableconfiguration.Thisgraspcriteriameasurecouldevolveintoanimportantpartof
anautonomous graspingsystem. 6 Conclusions TheRobonaut Hand is
presented. This highly anthropomorphic human scale hand builtat the NASA
Johnson Space Center is designed to interface with EVA crewinterfaces
thereby increasing the number of robotically compatible
operationsavailable to the International Space Station. Several novel
mechanisms aredescribed that allow the Robonaut hand to achieve
capabilities approaching thatof an astronaut wearing a pressurized space
suited glove. The initial jointbased control strategy is discussed and
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